Surveying for Mapping

To allow easier navigation of this topic, it has been divided it into four sections.



    »  What is Survey Control and Why is it Needed?
    »  How are Survey Measurements Made?
    »  Background
          •   Explaining Some Jargon – Astronomical Observations and Magnetic Bearing
    »  National Surveys
          •   Explaining Some Jargon – Plane and Geodetic Surveying
          •   Explaining Some Jargon – Trig Stations

Surveying Methods

    »  Surveying Methods
          •   Triangulation
                ~ Explaining Some Jargon – Angular Measurement
          •   Trilateration
          •   Traversing

Surveying Heights

    »  Heights
        •   Heights from Barometric Pressure
        •   Heights from Vertical Angles
        •   Heights from Optical Levelling
        •   Explaining Some Jargon – Levelling Instruments

Surveying Using GPS and Conclusion

    »  Surveying with GPS
          •   GPS Baseline
          •   Kinematic GPS
          •   Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)
          •   Heights from GPS
    »  Explaining Some Jargon – Plate Tectonics
    »  Adjustment of Surveying Measurements

Further Reading

Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying & Mapping (ICSM) – Standards and Practice for Control Surveys - Special Publication 1 (SP1)
Standard for Australian Survey Control Network v2.1
Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying & Mapping (ICSM) – Geocentric Datum of Australia Technical Manual
GDA2020 and GDA94 technical manuals
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) – Geodesy, Global Positioning 
Geoscience Australia – Geodesy and Global Positioning System (GPS)
University of New South Wales, Satellite Navigation and Positioning Lab (SNAP) — Surveying and Geospatial Engineering
National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office – Surveying and Mapping, Global Positioning System

Clarke D., Plane and Geodetic Surveying, 5th Edition   
(this resource is not available digitally)

Trigonometric Heighting   –   Volume 2, pages 519-529
Barometric Heighting   –   Volume 2, pages 543-566
Optical Levelling   –   Volume 1, pages 303-332 and Volume 2, pages 482-519
Plane Table   –   Volume 1, pages 333-357
Traditional Geodetic Surveying   –   Volume 2, pages 157-278